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Bike Materials | Quick Reference


metro golfing moutaineering,Hiking,Trekking sailing,boating,maritime SCUBA Diving,Snorkeling,Skin Diving,Free Diving Downhill Sports,Skiiing,Snowboarding


General Metal Alloy Specific Stiffness To Strength Chart Hummer XC Frame, 16.0" - Natural Titamium - Made By Lightspeed, From Casanova's

2016 Common Bike Frame Materials


Key Feature

Chrome Molloy (CrMo) Steel Alloy

Key Feature

Titanium Alloy

Key Feature

Scandium Alloy

Key Feature

Aluminum Alloy


A Metal Made By Combining Two Or More Metallic Elements.  There are many different metal alloys today produced in many different industries for special and general purpose application.  Alloys are developed to produce a set of defined characteristics; like strength and resistance to corroding (breaking down back into its original formulated/fundamental elements).

 Today's Markets Are Filled With Dishonest Sellers And Misleading Claims And Assumptions By Many Misinformed Consumers And "Professionals".  A product Can Be Given Any Name.  A Name Is Not A Description, Only A Reference.  An Aluminum Bikes Does Not Mean Its Of Any Specific Alloy Or Capability.  There Are Many Alloys Of Aluminum And Stainless Not Resistant To Corrosion.  Ask Questions About The Alloy Of A Metal, Before Making Decisions On Application And/Or Purchase.

Beware Of Aluminum Bike Frames -----, They Are Popularly Offered For Sale Because They Are The Current Cheap To Manufacturer Metal In China, By One Large Mass Manufacturer And Branded For Many Bike Vendors Today.  You, The Consumer Reading This, Is The One Who Sets Your Personal Standard For What Is Expectable To You And Your Life Comfort, Safety, And Experiences.

  • All Commercially-Made Metal Bike Frames Are Made Of A Metal Alloy.
  • A Metal Alloy Is A Specific Mixture Of Basic Chemical Elements Found In The Universe.

Each Specific Metal Alloy Has Inherent Characteristics Benefiting Different Types Of Bike Applications.  Higher Quality And Effective, Innovative, Intelligent Bike Designers And/Or Engineers, Are Coming Up With Innovative Concepts In Bike Frame Designs To Be Different In The Market Place, Push Performance Past Previous Limitations, Or Offer A Entirely New Generation Of Evolutionary Thinking (Thinking Outside The Herd ("Box") Low-Intelligence-Level Mentality).

Start By Understanding -----> All Bike Frames, Of A Certain Type, Do Not Provide The Same Feel Or Performance! ...... A Basic Understanding Of Each Metal Alloy Used In Bike Frame Manufacturing, Along With The Typical Known Characteristics Of Past Bike Frame Performance, Is The Best Policy When Choosing A New Bike, Or Choosing A Bike Frame For A Custom Build.

Understanding Metal Alloys (Metals)

A UNS (Unified Numbering System) Metals Numbering Scheme, Is Used To Identify Metal Alloys.  A UNS Is Designated By A Letter Followed By Five Numbers.  The UNS Is A Composition-Based System Of Commercial Materials And Does Not Guarantee Any Performance Specifications Or Exact Composition With Impurity Limits. Other Nomenclature Systems Have Been Incorporated Into The UNS Numbering System To Minimize Confusion.

Example: Aluminum 6061 (AA6061) Becomes 'UNS A96061'.

AxxxxxAluminum Alloys
HxxxxxSteels - AISI H Steels
KxxxxxSteels, Including Maraging, Stainless Steel, HSLA, Iron-Base Superalloys
R5xxxxTitanium Alloys
SxxxxxStainless Steels, Including Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel And Iron-Based Superalloys


CrMo Chromoly Steel

A High-Durability Metal With Shock Absorbing Characteristics, And An Excellent Strength-To-Lightweight Ratio.

Today, A Hand Made Chromoly Bike Is A Prized Trophy, Commuter, Touring, Street-Smart Bike.  Taken For Granted, Steel Frames Are No Being Rediscovered As The Frame Material Of Choice.

High-End High-Quality-Engineered Street-Smart, Road, Touring, Load Touring, Adventure, Jumping, BMX, And Downhill Mountain Bikes Are Typically Made Of CrMo Steel Alloy.

CrMo Steel Alloy Is Relatively Heavy, And In The Case Of Bike Frames, Offers A Must More Stable Platform Than Aluminum.  The Weight Will Help Keep The Bike Stable Riding Over Pot-Holes, Road-Cracks And Rocky Terrain.  CrMo Steel Absorbs Shock, Which Means A Much More Comfortable And Bearable Ride Over Roads, And Off-Road.  This Alloy Is By Far, Much More Comfortable To Ride Than Aluminum Alloy Bikes.  CrMo Has Bending Capabilities, Which Is A Good Thing!  For Instance, A Bent Derailleur From Harsh Riding Can Be Bent Back Into Shape ----- A Must When In Remote Areas; Load Touring, Downhill Mountain Biking, And Adventure Off-Road And On-Trail Distance Hiking, Or Riding!  A True Mountain-Bike Is A Bike Used To Ride Down Mountains; And Must Be Strong To Endure Huge Forces Of Shock Impact.

Note; The Term "Mountain Bike" Is Incorrectly Used By Marketing People To Sell More Bikes To The General Public.

4130 CrMo



Aluminum Alloy

An 'Aluminum Alloy' is a certain mix of the aluminum element combined with another elements; such as magnesium, copper or silicon.

Most Bikes Today Are Being Made Of Aluminum, Due To The Uneducated General-Consumer Appeal To The Misleading Lightweight.  Mass Production Has Reduced The Cost Of Making Various Aluminum Alloys And Therefore Increasing Profit Margins; Making This The Choice Of Big Corporation Mass-Marketing Sellers!

The Aluminum Alloys Used Offer Very Light Frames.  However, Since Aluminum Is Weak, The Frame Tubes Must Be Larger And Thicker Than Using Alternative Steel Or Titanium Alloys.  Aluminum Is Also Stiff And Cannot Absorb Shock.  The Ride On An Aluminum Frame Bike Is Harsh And Not Comfortable Without Additional Shocking Aids Added!  Every Crack, Bump, Rock, Pebble Or Slight Difference In Terrain Is Felt When Riding The Bike.  Aluminum Alloys Will Break, Not Bend.

The Stiff Frame Requires Less Energy Since All The Energy Exerted On The Pedal Is Transferred Directly To The Wheel, As Long As A Shock System Is Not Installed On The Bike.

With A Proper Shock Absorbing Configuration, An Aluminum Frame Has Been proven Good For Trail And Off-Road Bikes.

Highly Not Recommended For Jumping, Stunts, Downhill, Or Load Touring Foundations!






The Lightest Strength-To-Lightweight Ratio Metal Available For Bike Frames.  The Titanium Metal Is Currently Still Expensive To Produce Making Frames Expensive.  Premium Bike Designs Are Showing Up On The Market With Titanium Frames.  A Very Strong Metal With An Excellent Strength/Weight Ratio.


Titanium is a metallic element whose unique properties including high strength, low density, excellent fatigue and corrosion resistance and low modulus make it the ideal material for bicycle frames. Developed primarily for the aerospace industry, titanium alloys have also found a growing use in Medical, Petrochemical, Pulp and Paper, Architectural, Naval and Sports applications.  Titanium itself is not rare but actually very abundant with large deposits occurring in Australian beach sand.  However, titanium's extreme reactivity with oxygen makes it difficult to produce in metallic form and it is a long and expensive process to create the seamless tubes used in frame construction.


Strength to Weight Ratio
Based on Yield Strength divided by Density
74% higher than 6061 - T6 Aluminum
102% higher than 4130 Cr-Mo steel
(the most common form of steel used in bike frames)

Elastic Modulus
15.0 x 106 psi (10.3 x 104 Mpa)
50% higher than aluminum alloys and 50% lower than steel alloys

Corrosion Resistance

Excellent in all natural water and saltwater environments Unlike steel, titanium will never rust and will not pit, corrode or deteriorate in salt water like aluminum alloys

Titanium has good fracture Toughness

Ti resists damage from impact unlike composite materials

Fatigue Resistance

Excellent for both high and low cycle fatigue.

Material Properties Compared

Titanium vs. Other Materials

Lightness, stiffness, and fatigue life are all self-explanatory, while "Ride Quality" is a little different.

Basically, a higher number corresponds to how well you might feel after a long 5 hour training ride.  The materials that score high, "dampen" road vibrations and "soften" an otherwise harsh ride.  Those that score lower tend to fatigue the rider quickly; transmit all of the road shock and vibrations straight thru the frame and into the rider's body.


Scandium Alloy Bike Frame

An Exotic Metal Alloy, Of The High-Tech Custom Bike Frame Market.  It Is A Very Light Metal And Has A Much Higher Melting Point Than Aluminum, Making It Of Interest To Designers Of Spacecraft.  Some Of The Bike Industry Engineers Have Been Conducting Research And Development of Bike Frames Using Scandium Alloys.

We Now Offers These Exotics Space Age Bike Frames For The Distinct Individual With A Taste For Cutting-Edge High-Tech Space Age Technologies.


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